This glossary contains terms and terminology related to cotton plant, cotton fiber and education.

Aphid species, Aphis gossipeii, a sucking pest of cotton.

The larval or caterpillar stage of a most significant cotton pest, primarily infesting fruit (squares, blooms and bolls).

Character (trait)
A distinctive but not necessarily invariable feature exhibited by all individuals of a group and capable of being described or measured; e.g. colour, size, performance. A character of a given individual will have a certain phenotype as determined by the individual’s genotype and environment.

A cotton fibre is classified in four ways, by its length, micronaire,strength and uniformity. The fibre typically accounts for approximately 35 percent of the weight of a seed cotton, though this proportion varies.

The basic unit of inheritance.

Genetic purity
Genetic Purity – Trueness to type or cultivar, usually referring to seed.

Genetics is the basic science dealing with causes of resemblances and differences among organisms related by descent. It takes into account the effects of genes and the environment.

The process where a seed, spore, or zygote begins to sprout, grow, or develop, usually after it has been dormant for a time while waiting for the right growing conditions.

Green Revolution
Modification of agriculture starting in the 1950s through the use of machines, fertiliser, pesticides, irrigation and the growth of hybrid varieties of rice, wheat, and corn.

Grow out test
Grow out test is conducted to determine the genetic purity of given seed lots.

Growth regulators
A chemical that speeds or slows plant growth or maturation.

The cultivation of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field, with or without a row arrangement (row intercropping or ‘mixed intercropping’).

Any of a large group of plants of the pea family.

The cotton fibre obtained by the ginning process once the cotton seed,leaves and casing have been removed.

A single crop planted in one area at one time.

Multiline variety
A multiline variety is a mixture of genetic types (lines) of a crop similar in growth characteristics but which differ in the resistance genes which they carry.

An animal causing damage or annoyance to man, his animals, crops or possessions, such as insects, mites, nematodes, rodents, birds. In phrases such as ‘integrated pest management’ and ‘pest control’, the term is used in a broader sense to mean all harmful organisms including fungi, bacteria, viruses and virus-like organisms, and weeds.

Plant breeding
Plant Breeding has been defined as: the art and the science of improving the heredity of plants for the benefit of mankind.

A group of individual plants having some characteristics in common, either location, family ancestry, or intended use.

Seed rate
Amount of seeds used in the sowing (e.g. 40 kg/ha).

Span length
The extent exceeded by a stated proportion of cotton fibres, eg, 2.5% span length is the length exceeded by only 2.5% of fibres by number.

see variety

The inability of plants to restrict the activities of a specified pest or pathogen. Also, the inability to withstand a specific environmental or chemical stress.

The ability of plants to endure a specified pest, pathogen, environmental pressure or chemical stress. A tolerant variety will sustain less damage than a susceptible variety when grown under the same conditions.

A sub-division of species. Closely related plants with nearly identical characteristics, that are distinguishable from other members of the same species.

A populations ability to live, grow and develop. It is affected by physical habitat factors (climate, geology, topography, and aquatic features) and by biotic habitat factors (plant and animal populations and communities).

Strong, vibrant germination and growth. A desirable characteristic.

A pathogen capable of causing disease state